The advantages of a diesel engine
A diesel-powered truck has many advantages that determine its wide distribution and applicability for loading / unloading operations:
Diesel engines are reliable - do not need electric ignition, they serve longer than gasoline ones and rarely require repair.
High service life and power.
Increased thermal efficiency results in lower fuel consumption compared to engines running on gasoline.
The stable torque of the diesel engine in an extensive high-speed range (including at low engine speeds) provides simplicity and flexibility of control. That in particular explains the installation of diesel engines for forklifts with large own weight and high load capacity (up to 40 tons).
Reduced requirements for the quality of the road surface in comparison with the electric forklift.
The possibility of long-term operation in the distance from the electrical network (which would not be possible for an electric forklift).
More cheap fuel (in comparison with gasoline).
Disadvantages of the diesel engine and ways to eliminate them
It is practically impossible to make a technique that, for all its usefulness and high quality, would not have flaws, they also have diesel loaders:
Due to the increased pressure in the engine cylinders during operation, diesel trucks are quite noisy, their drive is more susceptible to vibrations.
The presence of exhaust gas narrows the applicability in closed storage facilities.
The need for high-quality fuel.
Increase the cost of the truck due to the need for an accurate system that provides fuel injection.
The engine of a diesel loader is more difficult to start when operating in winter conditions.
The details of the diesel engine must be made of materials capable of providing high structural strength, which leads to an increase in the weight of the drive and a rise in the cost of its production.
Leading manufacturers constantly introduce various innovations, allowing to reduce, or even completely neutralize, the shortcomings of diesel loaders.
For example, the replacement of the air cooling system with water cooling, in addition to reducing the operating temperature of the engine system, along the way reduce the noise of the diesel engine due to greater isolation of the unit from the environment.
At present, it is already successfully possible to reduce the content of harmful substances in the exhaust of diesel engines to quite acceptable values. To effectively neutralize exhaust gases that prevent the use of diesel forklifts in closed warehouses, so-called catalytic converters are used. The efficiency of such diesel particulate filters is quite high and amounts to about 70-98%. In addition, industry leaders improve the quality of the engines themselves, thanks to which fuel is consumed more economically, which has a positive effect on reducing the harmfulness of exhaust fumes.
The problem of the diesel loader operation at low temperatures is also solved in practice. A special cold start system ensures the diesel engine's performance in severe colds. In addition, some simple tips will help to avoid problems with the launch of diesel engines in the northern regions. Do not leave an idle diesel truck in the winter on the street and in parking lots without heating. Put the equipment in a warm hangar, thus you will not only provide ease of starting in the cold season, but also extend the life of the engine.
Currently, the leading brands of diesel engines for the forklift are: Isuzu, Nissan, Kubota, Yanmar, Toyota, Mitsubishi, Perkins. They are characterized by a wide temperature range, which ensures highly efficient operation of equipment in a wide variety of climates. It is quite acceptable that such engines work with domestic fuel (in spite of this, in order to increase the service life of equipment, it is necessary to monitor the quality of fuel in any case). Frequently used and analogues of the mentioned units, produced in China. You can also recommend the already widely used Cummins engine.