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Toyota, Japanese automotive company, part of the financial and industrial group Toyota. One of the largest automobile companies in the world. It produces its products under various brands, including "Daihatsu". The headquarters is in Toyota.
The beginning of the history of the company Toyota can be considered 1933, when Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, initially unrelated to cars and engaged in the textile industry, opened an automobile department. Opened by his elder son, the owner of the company Sakichi Toyoda, later, and led the car brand Toyota to the world fame. The initial capital for the development of the first cars were the money gained from the sale of patent rights to spinning machines of the British company Platt Brothers.
In 1935, work was completed on the first passenger car, named Model A1 (later AA) and the first truck Model G1, and in 1936 the Model AA car was put into production. At the same time, the first export supply was made - four G1 trucks went to northern China. A year later, in 1937, the automobile department became a separate company, named Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. This is in brief the history of the pre-war development of Toyota.
After World War II, in 1947, the production of another model, the Toyota Model SA, began, and in 1950, in the midst of a severe financial crisis, the company survived the first and only strike of its workers. As a result, the corporate policy was revised, the sales department was separated into a separate company - Toyota Motor Sales Co., Ltd. However, for the post-war years, when the Japanese automobile industry, along with the rest of the industry, was experiencing not the best of times, the company did not come out of the crisis with the greatest losses.
In the early 50's, Taiichi Ohno conceived a unique production management system ("kamban"), which allows eliminating all types of losses - materials, time, production capacity. In 1962, the system was embodied in the enterprises of the Toyota Group and proved its effectiveness, contributing to the success of the company.
Toyota continues its global expansion - branches are opened in more and more countries of the world and those that have already been opened are developing. In addition, scientific and technical research is very active; open companies such as Toyota System Research Inc. (jointly with Fujitsu Ltd., 1990), Toyota Soft Engineering Inc. (together with Nihon Unisys, Ltd., 1991), Toyota System International Inc. (jointly with IBM Japan Ltd. and Toshiba Corp., 1991), etc. In 1992, Toyota Guiding Principles were published - the basic principles of the corporation's work, the expression of corporate philosophy. Then came the Earth Charter - as a reaction to the growing environmental trends in society. Ecology has had a big impact on the development of Toyota; plans and programs for environmental protection were developed, and in 1997 a Prius model was built with a hybrid engine. In addition to the Prius, hybrid models were equipped with the Coaster and RAV4 models.
In addition, in the 90s, Toyota managed to release its 70 millionth car (1991), and the 90 millionth (1996), to open the Toyota Training Center in Vladivostok in 1992 and enter into dealer agreements with Audi and Volkswagen, in 1995 sign with Hino and Daihatsu an agreement on the share distribution of products and in the same year announce the adoption of a new global business plan, as well as start production of engines with a variable valve timing system (VVT-i). In 1996, the Toyota Training Center was opened in Moscow and the production of a four-stroke gasoline engine with direct fuel injection (D-4) began. In 1997, in addition to the Prius, it was announced the launch of the Raum model, and in 1998 - Avensis and a new generation of the cult car SUV Land Cruiser 100. At the same time, Toyota acquired a controlling stake in Daihatsu. In the following year, 1999, Japan produced a 100 millionth Toyota car. In 2000, sales of the Prius model reached 50 thousand worldwide, a new generation of RAV4 was launched, and in 2001 the 5 millionth Camry in the USA was sold
To date, Toyota is one of the world's largest car manufacturers. Of course, it is also the largest Japanese automaker, producing more than 5.5 million cars a year, which is roughly equal to one car every six seconds. In the Toyota group there are a lot of companies, both automotive and engaged in many different areas. In 2002, Toyota entered a new field, taking part in Formula1 racing.